China - Wikipedia. People\'s Republic of China.
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With a population of over 1. It exercises jurisdiction over 2. Beijing, Tianjin, Shanghai, and Chongqing), and two mostly self- governing special administrative regions (Hong Kong and Macau), and claims sovereignty over Taiwan. The country\'s major urbanareas include Shanghai, Guangzhou, Beijing, Chongqing, Shenzhen, Tianjin and Hong Kong. China is a great power and a major regional power within Asia, and has been characterized as a potential superpower.
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The Himalaya, Karakoram, Pamir and Tian Shan mountain ranges separate China from much of South and Central Asia. The Yangtze and Yellow Rivers, the third and sixth longest in the world, respectively, run from the Tibetan Plateau to the densely populated eastern seaboard. China\'s coastline along the Pacific Ocean is 1. Bohai, Yellow, East China, and South China seas. China emerged as one of the world\'s earliest civilizations in the fertile basin of the Yellow River in the North China Plain.
For millennia, China\'s political system was based on hereditary monarchies known as dynasties, beginning with the semi- legendary Xia (2. BCE). Since 2. 21 BCE, when the Qin dynasty first conquered several states to form a Chinese empire, the state has expanded, fractured and reformed numerous times. The Republic of China (ROC) replaced the last dynasty in 1. Chinese mainland until 1. People\'s Liberation Army in the Chinese Civil War. The Communist Party established the People\'s Republic of China in Beijing on 1 October 1. ROC government relocated to Taiwan with its present de facto temporary capital in Taipei.
Both the ROC and PRC continue to claim to be the legitimate government of all China, though the latter has more recognition in the world and controls more territory. Since the introduction of economic reforms in 1. China has become one of the world\'s fastest- growing major economies. China is also the world\'s largest exporter and second- largest importer of goods. Security Council in 1.
China is also a member of numerous formal and informal multilateral organizations, including the WTO, APEC, BRICS, the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO), the BCIM and the G- 2. Names. The English name . Some scholars have suggested that the Jiahu symbols (7th millennium BCE) constituted the earliest Chinese writing system. Many independent states eventually emerged from the weakened Zhou state and continually waged war with each other in the 3. Spring and Autumn period, only occasionally deferring to the Zhou king. By the time of the Warring States period of the 5th.
Its King Zheng proclaimed himself the First Emperor of the Qin Dynasty (Q. He enacted Qin\'s legalist reforms throughout China, notably the forced standardization of Chinese characters, measurements, road widths (i. His dynasty also conquered the Yue tribes in Guangxi, Guangdong, and northern Vietnam. Han involvement in Central Asia and Sogdia helped establish the land route of the Silk Road, replacing the earlier path over the Himalayas to India.
Han China gradually became the largest economy of the ancient world. At its end, Wei was swiftly overthrown by the Jin dynasty.
The Jin fell to civil war upon the ascension of a developmentally- disabled emperor; the Five Barbarians then invaded and ruled northern China as the Sixteen Kingdoms. The Xianbei unified them as the Northern Wei, whose Emperor Xiaowen reversed his predecessors\' apartheid policies and enforced a drastic sinification on his subjects, largely integrating them into Chinese culture. In the south, the general Liu Yu secured the abdication of the Jin in favor of the Liu Song. The various successors of these states became known as the Northern and Southern dynasties, with the two areas finally reunited by the Sui in 5. The Sui restored the Han to power through China, reformed its agriculture and economy, constructed the Grand Canal, and patronized Buddhism.
However, they fell quickly when their conscription for public works and a failed war with Korea provoked widespread unrest. However, it was devastated and weakened by the An Shi Rebellion in the 8th century. The Song Dynasty ended the separatist situation in 9. Song and Khitan Liao.
The Song was the first government in world history to issue paper money and the first Chinese polity to establish a permanent standing navy which was supported by the developed shipbuilding industry along with the sea trade. The Song dynasty also saw a revival of Confucianism, in response to the growth of Buddhism during the Tang. In 1. 12. 7, Emperor Huizong of Song and the capital Bianjing were captured during the Jin.
In 1. 27. 1, the Mongol leader Kublai Khan established the Yuan dynasty; the Yuan conquered the last remnant of the Song dynasty in 1. Before the Mongol invasion, the population of Song China was 1. Under the Ming Dynasty, China enjoyed another golden age, developing one of the strongest navies in the world and a rich and prosperous economy amid a flourishing of art and culture. It was during this period that Zheng He led voyages throughout the world, reaching as far as Africa. With the budding of capitalism, philosophers such as Wang Yangming further critiqued and expanded Neo- Confucianism with concepts of individualism and equality of four occupations. The last Ming Chongzhen Emperor committed suicide when the city fell.
The Manchu Qing dynasty then allied with Ming dynasty general Wu Sangui and overthrew Li\'s short- lived Shun dynasty, and subsequently seized control of Beijing, which became the new capital of the Qing Dynasty. End of dynastic rule. The Qing dynasty, which lasted from 1. China. Its conquest of the Ming (1. China was forced to sign unequal treaties, pay compensation, open treaty ports, allow extraterritoriality for foreign nationals, and cede Hong Kong to the British.
The First Sino- Japanese War (1. The initial success of the Self- Strengthening Movement of the 1. In the 1. 9th century, the great Chinese Diaspora began.